Value chains for CO2 re-use

Analysing the CO2 Value Chain

Analysing the CO2 value chain provides the foundation to make better decisions which path to take in the variety of potential options in CO2 re-use. The project guides, supports und takes a brokerage function on behalf of the EnCO2re programme. It answers questions like: “Where are the sources of CO2?”, “How large are they and how pure is the CO2 stream?”, “How can CO2 be purified to suit various re-use processes?”, “Where could the potential re-users of CO2 sit?” and “How could sources and receivers be connected?”.

Expected results

The final objective is to provide practitioners with guidance to compose their business cases. This includes data on the levels of purity of CO2 streams that would be compatible for combination and suitable for particular processes. Other data are the different levels of cost to treat, purify and transport CO2. The results show practitioners the thresholds or tipping points for the viability of different logistics options. This will allow donors and receivers of CO2 to evaluate the benefit and feasibility of common infrastructure in their area.

CO2 sources

The map of CO2 streams shows the location of point sources of CO2. Dark red indicates larger scale sources and light yellow indicates smaller sources.

CO2 usage potential

This map shows the potential demand for CO2 in several regions based on their industrial activity. Darker blue: areas with higher potential demand.

What is exactly being done?

The team tackles each stage of the CO2 re-use value chains and maps out supply points and demand areas. It carries out techno-economic comparisons from capture, treatment/purification to final conversion. Amongst the methods are:

  1. Techno-economic analysis of financial viability
  2. Ongoing state-of-the-art scientific and industrial literature review
  3. Material Flow Analysis
  4. GIS-visualization
  5. Stakeholder analysis and consultation
  6. Consultation with existing international working groups such as CO2Chem
  7. Innovation policy analysis

The contribution to developing a CO2 re-use market

By being technology-agnostic and geographically comprehensive, the porject ensures transparency of its knowledge and collaboration brokering. This helps practitioners in developing future projects with a variety of resources and partners beyond the original EnCO2re consortium. A key outcome will be the uncovering of potential opportunities for CO2 reuse driven by understanding of the requirements of CO2-receiving processes plus logistical constraints. In addition, the project investigates policy needs related to the constraints and motivations of key stakeholder groups.

“I am passionate about resource efficiency. From that point of view, all the investigations that can help turn a by-product that has negative climate and environmental impacts into a feedstock for an increasing number of products can be highly beneficial. It is very exciting to be part of the early work in this area and allow economies of scale to emerge to make new initiatives more feasible.” – Arturo Castillo


Project duration

05/2014 to 12/2016


Project consortium

  • Imperial College London
  • Engie Lab
  • Chalmers University
  • TU Delft
  • MINES-ParisTech
  • Johanneberg Science Park


Applications of capture technologies

This table illustrates how different CO2 recovery technologies are more suitable to use in combination with specific sources of CO2. It also shows the level of applicability or how common they are used or proposed to be used in a particular combination and in what level of maturity the combination is at present. Legend: *** most commonly used solution ** other solutions being used pilot or demonstration * Promising but not yet applied time horizon 10 – 15 years – Combination not found in the literature so far


Arturo Castillo

Project Lead, Research Fellow at Imperial College

Want to know the CO2 emissions streams in Europe and what purity they have?

Have a look here:

EnCO2re CO2 visualisation tool

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